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An example of Serindian art. InChina under the Sui Dynasty defeated the Tuyuhunforced him to take refuge in Qilian mountains. As early as the mid-first millennium BC the Yuezhi engaged in the jade trade, of which the major consumers were the rulers of agricultural China.

Uyghur nationalist historians such as Turghun Almas claim that Uyghurs were distinct and independent from Chinese for years, and that all non-Uyghur peoples are non-indigenous immigrants to Xinjiang.

Tang dynasty and struggle with Tibetan Empire[ edit ]. They succeeded in separating the Xiongnu from the Qiang peoples to the south, and also gained direct access to the Western Regions.

All of the jade items excavated from the tomb of Fuhao of the Shang dynasty by Zheng Zhenxiangmore than pieces, were from Khotan in modern Xinjiang. Genetic analyses suggest West Eurasian "Caucasoid" maternal contribution to Uyghurs is In the 6th century the Turks began to emerge in the Altay region, subservient to the Rouran.

During the usurpation of Wang Mang in China, the dependent states of the protectorate rebelled and returned to Xiongnu domination in AD The Western Jin Dynasty succumbed to successive waves of invasions by nomads from the north at the beginning of the 4th century.

At the beginning of the Han dynasty BC - ADthe region was subservient to the Xiongnua powerful nomadic people based in modern Mongolia.

Gokturk tribes[ edit ] In the late 5th century the Tuyuhun and the Rouran asserted power in southern and northern Xinjiang, respectively, and the Chinese protectorate was lost again.

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Tarim Basin and Indo-European kingdoms was under the control of Han dynasty and was influenced by Han Chinese emperors. After the fall of the Han dynastythe protectorate continued to be maintained by Cao Wei until and the Western Jin Dynasty from onwards.

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After the final reunification of northern China under the Northern Wei empire, its protectorate controlled what is now the southeastern third of Xinjiang. Han China sent Zhang Qian as an envoy to the states in the region, beginning several decades of struggle between the Xiongnu and Han China over dominance of the region, eventually ending in Chinese success.

According to these accounts: Some Uyghur scholars claim modern Uyghurs descent from both the Turkic Uyghurs and the pre-Turkic Tocharians Yuezhiand relatively fair hair and eyes, as well as other so-called 'Caucasoid' physical traits, are not uncommon among Uyghurs.

As a result of these battles, the Chinese controlled the strategic region from the Ordos and Gansu corridor to Lop Nor. In the Gokturks split into western and eastern halves, with Xinjiang coming under the western half. Over the next century, Han China conducted several expeditions into the region, re-establishing the protectorate from, and from onward.

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Within a century they had defeated the Rouran and established a vast Turkic Khaganatestretching over most of Central Asia past both the Aral Sea in the west and Lake Baikal in the east.

In the 2nd century BC, The Han Dynasty made preparations for war when the Emperor Wu of Han dispatched the explorer Zhang Qian to explore the mysterious kingdoms to the west and to form an alliance with the Yuezhi people in order to combat the Xiongnu.

Genetic evidence[ edit ] A young Uyghur girl photographed in July in TurpanXinjiang, China Modern genetic analysis suggests that aboriginal inhabitants had a high proportion of DNA of European origin.

Xiaohe is the oldest archaeological site yielding human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin to date. Local states such as Kashgar Shule KingdomHotan YutianKucha Guizi and Cherchen Qiemo controlled the western half, while the central region around Turpan was controlled by Gaochang later Half off hookup new orleans as Qara-hojaremnants of a Xiongnu state Northern Liang that once ruled part of what is now Gansu province in northwestern China.